A Universal Theory of Earth's Changing Crust

Heikki Ruohonen, M.Sc. (Eng.)

Created: 15.8.2002, last update: 13.3.2004

The Theory of Continental Drift has gained almost an indisputable approval. According to this theory an Indian plate is pushing under an Eurasian plate and lifting it several kilometers. But it is impossible. The solid upper layer is 50-100 kilometers thick with an average density of 3g/cm3. The pressure below it is approximately 15000-30000 bar. The magma would flow towards the Indian plate, where the pressure is lower. The forces suggested in the Theory of Continental Drift (convection currents) are too weak to move continents, especially against counter-pressure of several thousand bars.

My theory is, that the primary cause for the crustal movements is a change in the axial tilt, a shift of the spin axis of the Earth. Many researchers have speculated with this idea, but have not been able to prove it or explained it with an external agent colliding with the Earth.

I decided to analyze, what happens after an axis shift. For the analysis I developed a simulation model. To approach the problem mathematically, I used a new concept, which I call the "Globe". The "Globe" is an immaterial copy of the Earth in its early liquid state, a mathematical formula for it, an exact mathematical ellipsoid. The "Globe" is connected with the spinning of the Earth so, that its minor axis always coincides with the spin axis of the Earth. The "Globe" and the Earth have a common center of mass. The "Globe" is invariable. A change in its angular velocity only changes its eccentricity. Changes in the Earth have no influence in the "Globe". In my study all the elevations are measured from the "Globe's" surface. The only active forces are the central forces and the gravity.

When the Earth still was in a liquid state, these forces gave it a shape of an exact ellipsoid of rotation spinning on its minor axis. Its every layer was an exact ellipsoid. The "Globe" is an immaterial copy of the Earth in this liquid state, a mathematical formula for it, an exact mathematical ellipsoid.

When the Earth cooled, the uppermost layer became a solid crust. The entire planet was covered by an even crust, as thick as the present continental crust. There was no dry land. The entire Earth was covered by water, with a shallow sea. Hence there was no terrestrial life either. At that time the Earth and the "Globe" were more or less equal. This lasted millions of years. As today only less than half of the crust is left, the rest was once torn off probably by some heavenly body. After this event water ran into the created immense excavation and exposed the dry land. From this time come the first findings of terrestrial animals and plants.

The central forces and the gravity began to change the Earth's shape towards the "Globe" The Americas moved westwards. This meant shift of mass.

Every change in the mass changes the moment of inertia and the ellipsoid of inertia. As a result the main axis would turn and the Earth's spin axis would follow one of the main axes. As the Earth is not a rigid body, it can to some extent mend small instantaneous changes in the moment of inertia. However, this process is possible only to a certain limit, because it causes deformation in the inner core. When the limit is exceeded, the central forces and the gravity will normalize the inner core. The main axes of the ellipsoid of inertia turn and the Earth's spin axis follows one of them. The "Globe" turns in relation to the Earth. To be exact, the inclination of the spin axis in relation to the ecliptic remains constant, because there is no external force acting. So the Earth turns and the "Globe" preserves its position, but it is easier to explain on the contrary. The outcome is the same.

As a result the Earth differs now a lot from the "Globe". The central forces and the gravity start to shape the Earth towards the "Globe". Every particle of the Earth shifts. Here we have forces powerful enough to move the continents.

Finally the shape of the Earth gets very close to the "Globe", but it can never achieve it. Its spin axis turns before it. The spin axis can no longer coincide with the geometrical axis of the Earth because of the uneven distribution of the continents. The shift of the spin axis has taken place, not only once, but several times. As a result of the shift the "Globe" takes a new position, from which all the elevations have to be measured.

Charles H. Hapgood proposed, that the previous North Pole was located in Hudson Bay. Hapgood based his conclusion on the form of this area. Instead of choosing a random position for the "Globe" I decided to start my analysis by calculating, if Charles H. Hapgood's pole could be a result from one of the axis shifts. Lets suppose, that the pole was in Belcher Islands at a point 56.20°N 80°W, 33.80° from the present North Pole. The origins, the two points where the Earth's diameter of turn intersect the surface of the Earth, were then 90° from the meridian 80°W i.e. 00N 10° E and 0°N 170°W. There is a belt of a shallower sea passing through Mururoa, Pitcairn and Isla Alejandro Selkirk. It does indeed cross the equator at 170°W. This might very well be the previous equator bulge. Alejandro Selkirk (33.45°S 80.46°W) is very close to meridian 80°W. Thus the tilt angle of the spin axis is between 33.45° and 33.80°.

The coast lines of the northwestern Africa and the southeastern Africa are symmetrical with respect to the point 0°N 10°E as is shown in my theory. This symmetry is hard to explain without the shift of the spin axis. Thus the origins were at the points 0°N 10°E and 00N 170°W. The turn diameter passed trough these points. Charles H. Hapgood was right, Hudson Bay seems to be the right place for the previous North Pole.

The elevations changed because of the shift of the spin axis. Some areas sank and some rose. The maximum elevations were 11.95 km at the points 61.78°N 100°E and 61.78°S 80°W. The minimum elevations were -11.95 km at the points 28°N 80°W and 28°S 100°E. All this took place within a very short time. This could explain the jumping mountains in psalm 114 and the fresh flower in the mouth of the Beresovska mammoth, suddenly lifted up in an altitude of 4000 m. The altitude of the most parts of Europe, Asia and Patagonia became more than 5000 m, which meant Ice Age. The shape of the Earth after the axis shift differed a lot of the "Globe", which once again activated the gravity and the central forces to start the process of shaping the Earth towards the "Globe".

As a result of my study, we now have a mathematical and universal approach to the changes in the Earth's crust. (www.nimpal.net/globe)

A Universal Theory of Earth's Changing Crust

CONTENTS

1) The "Globe"

When the Earth was in a liquid state, the central forces and the gravity gave Earth a shape of an exact ellipsoid of rotation, spinning on its minor axis. Its every layer was a mathematical ellipsoid. For the mathematical treatment of the problem, I will use a new concept the "Globe". It is an immaterial copy of the Earth in that liquid state. It is connected with the spinning of the Earth. Its minor axis coincides with the spin axis of the Earth. The "Globe" and the Earth have a common center of mass. The "Globe" is invariable. Changes in the angular velocity only change the eccentricity. Changes in the Earth have no influence in the "Globe". The central forces and the gravity always shape the Earth towards the "Globe". I assume, that when the Earth's shape is close to the "Globe", its spin axis turns.

Fig 1: Tilting the Earth's axis of rotation.

Let's turn the Earth's spin axis an angle d around one of the Earth's equatorial diameters (figure 1). The Earth itself does not turn. It keeps its position G'. The Earth begins to spin about an axis N-S instead of N'S'. Now all the elevations (e) are to be measured from the surface of the "Globe" in a new position G, instead of the previous G'. In this moment the Earth is very similar to G'. The Earth's surface rises in two areas and sinks in two others.

2) The change of elevations after the shift of spin axis.

I have used a XYZ- coordinate and turned it an angle d round the X-axis and then changed over to Polar coordinate. Then the difference of the radii of the two "Globes" or the elevation (e) can be calculated at any point in the "Globe". I have used an orthogonal map in the figures. The turn axis passes through the origins, in the middle of the image, perpendicular to the image.

Fig 2: The change of elevations after the shift of spin axis.

The Earth's surface rises within two Up-areas (the red areas in figure 2) and sinks in two Down-areas (the blue and green areas). The surface remains unchanged on the lines (zero lines) between these areas. The zero lines intersect each other at the origins. The previous poles lie on the meridian 90° from the origins. I call them the Pole meridians. They divide the "Globe" into two symmetrical hemispheres. The Pole meridians pass through the point of elevation maximum and minimum (yellow points). There is symmetry in relation to the origins.All this is valid, regardless of the value of the turn angle. If my theory is true, there must be a corresponding symmetry on the Earth, too. My theory stands or falls with it! The height and the places of the elevations depend on the turn angle.

3) The co-ordinates on the Earth.

We must find the two origins, on the Earth. Charles H. Hapgood has proposed that the previous North Pole was in Hudson Bay, because of its form. Lets suppose, that the pole was in Belcher Islands at a point 56.20°N 80°W, i.e. 33.80° from the present North Pole. Then the origins where 90° from the meridian 80°W i.e. 0°N 10°E and 0°N 170°W. There is a belt of a shallower sea passing through Mururoa, Pitcairn and Isla Alejandro Selkirk. This may very well be the previous equator bulge. It does indeed cross the equator at 170°W. Alejandro Selkirk (33.45°S 80.46°W) is very close to meridian 80°W. Thus the tilt angle of the spin axis is between 33.45° and 33.80°. Without any great error the turn angle can be d = 33.80°.

In the figure 3 there is a violet orthogonal map situated so, that the point 0°N 10°E lies at the origin. There is another identical map (the red one) that has been turned 180° round the point 0°N 10°E.


Fig 3: The co-ordinates on the Earth.


Now the coastline of northwestern Africa coincides with the coastline of southeastern Africa very well on both maps. The coincidence continues along Lakes Nyasa, Rukwa an Tanganyika, where a new rift walley is getting birth.

In case of symmetry the origin divides the straight line in two similar parts. If a point on the Atlantic coast is at the same distance from the meridian 10°E as another point on the coast of Indian Ocean, that is on the same latitude on the opposite site of the equator these points are symmetrical with respect to the point 0°N 10°E (congruent triangles).

For example

Atlantic Indian Ocean

 

They are very close symmetrical ones

32°N 9.2°W + 10° = 19.2°

32°S 29.0°E - 10° = 19.0°

Atlantic Coast

Distance

Coast of Indian Ocean

Distance

34 oN

6.5°W

16.5°

34°S

25.4°E

15.4°

32 oN

9.2 oW

19.2 o

32 oS

29.0 oE

19.0 o

30 oN

9.4 oW

19.4 o

30 oS

30.5 oE

20.5 o

28 oN

12.6 oW

22.6 o

28 oS

32.3 oE

22.3 o

26 oN

14.3 oW

24.3 o

26 oS

32.4 oE

22.4 o

24 oN

15.5 oW

25.5 o

24 oS

35.3 oE

25.3 o

22 oN

16.4 oW

26.4 o

22 oS

35.2 oE

25.2 o

20 oN

16.3 oW

26.3 o

20 oS

34.5 oE

24.5 o

18 oN

15.6 oW

25.6 o

18 oS

36.5 oE

26.5 o

16 oN

16.3 oW

26.3 o

16 oS

39.5 oE

29.5 o

14 oN

16.5 oW

26.5 o

14 oS

35.2 oE

25.2 o Nyasa

12 oN

16.1 oW

26.1 o

12 oS

34.5 oE

24.5 o Nyasa

10 oN

14.0 oW

24.0 o

10 oS

33.5 oE

23.5 o Nyasa

8 oN

12.6 oW

22.6 o

8 oS

30.3 oE

20.3 o Tanganyika

6 oN

10.1 oW

20.1 o

6 oS

29.1 oE

19.1 o Tanganyika

4 oN

9.1 oW

19.1 o

4 oS

29.2 oE

19.2 o Tanganyika

2 oN

9.5 oW

19.5 o

2 oS

28.5 oE

18.5 o Lac Kivu

The distances are very close each other. They cannot be exactly the same. During thousands of years the erosion has been different in different places. The coast lines of the northwestern Africa and the southeastern Africa are symmetrical with respect to the point 0° 10°E. This symmetry is hard to explain without the shift of the spin axis. Thus the two origins lie at the points 0°N 10°E and 0°N 170°W. Charles H. Hapgood was right, Hudson Bay seems to be the right place for the previous North Pole. Let's now lay the maps in the figures.

The elevations just after the shift of the spin axis. The maximum elevations were 11.95 kilometers at MAX1=61.78°N 100°E and MAX2=61.78°S 80°W (figure 2) and the minimum elevations -11.95 kilometers at MIN1=28°N 80°W and MIN2=28°S 100°E. The shift of the spin axis took place within a short time and caused events, that explain the jumping mountains in psalm 114 or the flowers in mouth of the Beresovska mammoth, that was suddenly lifted to an altitude of 11.5 kilometers. The altitude of Europe, Asia and Patagonia became more than 5000 meters. It means, that there was Ice Age.

The shape of the Earth differed a lot from the "Globe". The gravity and the central forces shape the Earth continuously towards the "Globe". Some areas rise (Down-areas) and some sink (Up-areas). The sea level rises.

We now have a mathematical and universal approach to the canges in the Earth's crust.

4) Flow paths.

As the viscosity of magma is very high, it is possible that the pressure varies on the same layers of the Earth. The local pressure depends of the elevation difference at the place. Magma flows from every point of the Earth to the direction of the lowest pressure. We have a point P on the surface of the Earth (figure 4) and we find another point P1, where the elevation is the minimum among all the points at a distance r from point P. Magma flows now from point P to point P1. I have used a step r =1° (r = 111 kilometers). Proceeding in the same way from the point P1, we will finally come to either point of the minimum elevation Pmin (MIN1 or MIN2). Proceeding similarly from point P towards the maximum elevation, we will finally come to either point of the maximum elevation Pmax (MAX1 or MAX2). This gives us the lines from Pmax to Pmin (figure 4). I call them flow paths. Magma flows from every point (except Pmin) of the Earth and the flow paths show the direction for the magma flow.The velocity of magma is very slow. I have used the points on the zero meridians with 1° space as starting points, but it can be any point on the Earth's surface.


Fig 4: Flow paths.


5) Magma flow.

According to Bernoulli's equation the increase in the kinetic energy of non viscous (frictionless) fluids is equal to the consumption of its potential energy p1-p2 = c22/2g-c12/2g. The potential energy is proportional to the elevation difference p1-p2 = C*(e1-e2). As magma is far from frictionless, all the elevation difference is needed to sustain the velocity of magma, the rest of it converts into heat by friction. Thus the beginning velocity is c1 = 0, so e1-e2 = c2/2g+heat. As the friction is usually proportional to the square of velocity, we get e1-e2 = C*c2. Thus the velocity of magma is v=C*(e1-e2) (fig 5). Relative values of velocity should be used instead of absolute ones, since the proportion of the developed heat is unknown.



Fig 5. Magma flow.

6) Acceleration of magma flow (a=v2-v1).

The acceleration of magma is positive in the red areas (fig 6) but negative in the blue areas. The acceleration of magma causes stress in the crust. This creates tension in the areas of positive acceleration and compression in areas, where the acceleration is negative. The crust breaks up with tension and folds with compression. The brown stripes indicate lines of equal velocity. I call them isovelos



Fig 6: Acceleration of magma flow (a=v2-v1).

7) Orientation of landscapes.

Assume a line A-B, not parallel to the isovelos I (fig 7). As the crust moves with magma along the flow paths, the line A-B tends to turn parallel to the flow paths, when the acceleration is positive (a). The reason for this is that the velocity is greater at point B than point A. Line A-B tends to turn parallel to the isovelos, when the acceleration is negative (b). The direction of the Andes is almost N-S up to latitude 16°S and then it turns abruptly transversely (fig 6). Quite obviously they have turned along the flow paths as long as the acceleration has been positive but transversely when the acceleration has become negative. So a separate region can take a new orientation without that the entire continent turns. Thus the paleomagnetic theory is not a liable method to show the place of the previous Poles.



Fig 7: Orientation of landscapes.


8) Accumulation of mass.

There are two points P1 and P2 on a flow path F (fig 8a). The distances of point P1 from the adjacent flow paths F1 and F2 are D11 and D12, and in the same way the distances of point P2 are D21 and D22 . If we connect the points N1, N2 , N3 and N4 to the center of the "Globe", we will get a pyramid (fig 8b), where D1 is the distance between F1 and F2 in the inflow site and D2 is the distance in the outflow site . Magma flows into this pyramid through a triangle A1 and leaves it through A2. Using relative values of velocity, we can take the average density r =1, then the mass inflow in a time unit is m1 = v1*A1 and the outflow m2 = v2*A2. There is accumulation of mass (positive or negative) inside the pyramid Ac = v1*A1-v2*A2. As the heights of the triangles A1 and A2 are practically equal, the distances D1 and D2 can substitute for the triangles. So we get Ac = v1*D1-v2*D2. The accumulation per a distance unit is ac = v1- D2/D1*v2. If the elevation difference is very small, the outflow v2 stops. The pressure in the pyramid grows and lifts the molten magma up. There will grow an uplift. This should be found along the zero lines. In fact, we can find an uplift on the zero lines along the southwestern coast of Africa and its symmetrical counterpart, the eastern coast of New Zealand and further along Tonga-Kermadec Ridge, and along the northern coast of Horn of Africa (figure 2). As the points N are with 1° space on the flow paths, the distances D11 + D12and D21 + D22 are longer than D1 and D2, but in the ratio D2/D1 this will be compensated more or less.



Fig 8: Accumulation of mass.


9) Accumulation rate (ar).

The accumulation rate is the difference of nearest values of accumulation along a flow path from Pmax to Pmin , ar = ac2 - ac1 (fig 9). In most cases the accumulation rate is positive even though the accumulation itself decreases in Up-areas. Both decr>.001 and incr>.001 mean the same accumulation rate. A positive accumulation rate decreases the elevation difference and slows down the magma flow. The Earth's surface will rise in Down-areas. The yellow areas indicate a very high accumulation rate. One result of it is a long uplift in the Caribbean. The Greater Antilles and Yucatan are parts of it. It continues as Clarion Fracture Zone in the Pacific. In Australia there is a corresponding uplift from Exmouth Plateau to Barkly Tableland. This, as all the previous cases, represent the situation just after the tilt of the Earth's spin axis.



Fig 9: Accumulation rate (ar).


10) Convergence of flow paths (c= D1/D2).

As all the flow paths pass from points Pmax to points Pmin , covering the entire Earth, they have to diverge (c<1) in the Up-areas and converge (c>1) in the Down-areas. However, there are some important exceptions (figure 10).



Fig 10: Convergence of flow paths (c= D1/D2).


11) Length of flow paths.

The length of the flow path varies (fig 11) but as the departures and the arrivals are common for all of them, the average elevation difference is inversely proportional to the length of the flow path, i.e. amount of steps. So is the average velocity and the mass that has moved in a time unit.



Fig 11: Length of flow paths.


12) Distribution of the accumulation.

As the accumulation in a time unit is greater along a shorter flow path than a longer one, we must multiply the basic acceleration by a coefficient inversely proportional to the amount of steps: acc=v1-(D2/D1)*v2*100/amount. Its distribution over the Earth is shown in figure 12. The absolute value of the accumulation decreases along a flow path from the points Pmax towards the zero line and increases then towards the points Pmin. The Earth approaches the shape of "the Globe". This process makes the sea level rise. There has been a great negative accumulation in the beginning of the flow paths, which means a strong flow of mass away. This has caused Grahamland and the southern end of South America to turn along with it. It has consumed the crust. That can be seen in Scotia Sea and Scotia Basin. A similar consumption can be seen westward in South-east Pacific Basin, too. A corresponding consumption can be found on both sides of the point 61.78°N 100°E, The East Siberian plateau eastward and The West Siberian plain westward.



Fig 12: Distribution of the accumulation.


13) Emerging continents.

Adding the accumulation, multiplied by a time related coefficient, to the elevation in figure 2, will give the elevation at the moment in question. E=e+(v1-(D2 /D1)*v2)*100/amount*TIME. Selecting the time coefficient so, that the sub-equatorial Africa rises above the sea-level (yellow areas in figure 13), we will get the present situation. The chosen TIME coefficient is then 335. Most parts of Down-area will rise above the zero-level but the continental blocks only emerge above sea-level. Both the coast lines of northwestern Africa and southeastern Africa correspond to the border line of the yellow area quite accurately. As also does the western coast of North America. Its broken eastern coast is far inside the yellow area. This means that there is no continental block eastward. North America has obviously separated from Europe and moved westward, as Wegener proposed. The large areas around the points Pmax cannot sink below zero level as figure 13 shows, but the sinking stops at zero level.


Fig 13: Emerging continents.


14) Changes in elevation difference.

The changes in elevations, change the elevation difference as well. Using the same TIME coefficient as in the previous chapter, we will get the present situation (fig 14). When the elevation difference diminishes enough, the magma flow slows down and finally stops and there will grow an uplift (blue stripes in the figure 14). One of these uplifts begins from Corsica and Sardinia continuing as Atlas mountains in Northwest Africa. Its symmetrical counterpart begins from Cape Rise and continues as Drakensberg in South Africa. The largest of these uplifts are the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and its counterparts. According to the Archimedes' law the highest mountain chains always grow in the seas.

Ocean effect. The sinking of crust increases towards the points of the elevation minimum (fig 2). The oceans get deeper and deeper as approaching these points along the flow paths. These two enormous depressions become filled with water. This decreases the elevation difference. This ocean effect has not been taken into account in this study. It has a great effect especially upon the birth of Caribbean Islands.



Fig 14: Changes in elevation difference.


15) The past of the Earth.

By choosing some smaller value for the TIME coefficient, we can survey the past of the Earth. With the value 170 we get the moment, when Novaya Semliya took its shape. Lesser Antilles emerged at the same time but we must bear in mind the later effect of orientation (fig 7). Its influence has been very significant in Lesser Antilles. We can also predict a future situation by choosing the TIME coefficient greater than 335.



Fig 15: The past of the Earth.


16) Trapped magma.

An interesting case is the Tibetan plateau. A diagrammatic drawing 16 illustrates the case. The elevation of the Tibetan plateau was very high after the tilt of the Earth's axis (a in fig 16) and it remained high. The magma had no way to move. A former high mountain chain, Himalaya, blocked the advance. In every direction it met higher pressure. The only place it could break through Himalaya was at 100 °E where the magma flow was strongest as the flow path was the shortest. It made the mountain chains turn southward. When the elevation in Siberia had sunk to lower level than in Tibet (b in figure 16), the magma began to flow from the high plateau back towards Siberia, creating an uplift Kunlun Shan. A similar case, in smaller scale, is going on in Europe. The Scandinavian mountain chain stopped the magma flow that now is reversing and lifts the crust in West Finland.



Fig 16: Trapped magma.


17) Negative accumulation rate.

There are also stripes, where the accumulation rate is negative. The surface sinks there (fig 17). It creates rifts and ridges. One of the negative stripes has formed the Greater Antilles (notice the bend of Cuba Island). It continues as Clarion Fracture Zone in the Pacific. In the Atlantic there is Puerto Rico Trench. As these rifts alternate with high uplifts they make the crust very unstable like the stripes from Altai through Pamir to Iran and another one through Korea and Japan.



Fig 17: Negative accumulation rate.


18) Changes in the Earth's moment of inertia.

As mass moves from one place to another, the moment of inertia of the Earth changes. Also the main axes of the inertia ellipsoid change. As the Earth spins around one of the main axes, the spin axis must also change. In accordance with the "Law for conservation of angular momentum" the spin angular momentum is constant. Assume a body, composed of all the pyramids (figure 7b) along a flow path from Pmax to Pmin (figure 18). It consists of two parts B1 and B2 . B1 is composed of all the pyramids, that have lost mass. B2 is composed of all the pyramids, that have gained mass. The changes in the moment of inertia will be compensated so, that the center of mass of the body B1 (point c1) rises and the center of mass of the body B2 (point c2) sinks. So the moment of inertia remains unchanged. If every layer inside the bodies B1 and B2 is homogeneous, the centers of gravity of areas A1 and A2, points c'1 and c'2,lie on the same radii of the Earth as points c1 and c2 . We can now compute their co-ordinates on the Earth's surface.

Fig 18: Changes in the Earth's moment of inertia.


19) The correction stripes of moment of inertia.

The central forces and the gravity are changing the Earth towards the "Globe" all the time. Every particle of the earth moves. As the process is very slow, the small instantaneous changes in the great moment of inertia of the Earth will be corrected with changes in the liquid core as shown in the previous chapter.

These corrections are seen on the surface as uplifts (red stripes) and subsidence (blue stripes). We can see that the red stripe follows the northern coast of Asia lifting it above sea-level. The lifting is especially clear also along Tien Shan. James Bay, at Hudson Bay, is the place of the strongest subsidence. The blue stripe crosses the Rocky Mounts along the Valley of Colorado. It crosses the coast line at Los Angeles. Basins are typical on the blue stripes. The "Trans Atlantic cable break" was presumably caused by this phenomenon, too. During a serious Earth quake a considerable motion of mass takes place. That will be compensated by another Earth quake at some place on the opposite site of the Earth. These kind of corrections of the moment of inertia are like a house of cards resting on nothing. Only the spinning of the Earth keeps it up. The higher it rises, the more uncertain is the balance. Finally it will collapse. The correction of the moment of inertia is possible only to a certain limit. When the limit is exceeded, the deformities of the core disappear and the axes of inertia take their proper stand and the spin axis must follow one of them. The spin axis shifts.



Fig 19: The correction stripes of moment of inertia.


20) Isostasy.

J.H. Pratt's idea of isostasy implies, that there is a certain level of compensation, where the pressure due to the weight of the overlaying material is same everywhere. If we have a 'continental column' and an 'oceanic column' on this level, their weights are equal. But the center of mass of the 'continental column' is situated higher, as the average density of this column is smaller (fig 20). Thus its moment of inertia is greater. As the distribution of the continents on the Earth is uneven, its main axes of the inertia ellipsoid never coincide with the geometrical axes of the Earth. In the end of the process the spin axis must tilt and the process must start again from the very beginning.



Fig 20: Isostasy.


Summary

In the beginning, when the Earth was in a fluid state, the central forces and the gravity gave it a shape of an exact ellipsoid spinning about its short axis. When it cooled and got a solid crust, it preserved this form. The Earth was then entirely covered by water. Sometimes in the past a celestial body tore off half of the crust from the present Pacific. Water filled this enormous hollow and dry continent emerged. The terrestrial life became possible. It might be during the Cambrian period. The Earth then corrected the imbalance so, that the Americas moved westward and Australia eastward. The Pangaea broke up. The static equilibrium got corrected but the distribution of the continents became uneven.

This incident changed the moment of inertia. The main axes of the ellipsoid of inertia shifted and the Earth began to spin on a new axis. The Earth now differed from the ellipsoid model "Globe" a lot. The central forces and the gravity started to change the shape of the Earth towards the "Globe". Moving of mass would have turned the spin axis. It was, however, prevented by changes in the inner core. But only to a certain limit, and finally the spin axis had to shift. The moving magma created tension in the crust, which broke the continents and crudely evened out the uneven distribution.

The uneven distribution of the continents prevents the Earth to attain the state of equilibrium, where the Earth would be an ellipsoid spinning around its short axis. The moment of inertia is greater within the continents than within the oceans. Even if the shape of the Earth was close to an ellipsoid, its main axes of the inertia will not coincide with the geometric axes. And the spin axis shifts. The central forces and gravity begin to change the shape of the Earth again towards "the Globe". This demands moving mass. The moment of inertia of the Earth would change. Changes in the liquid core prevent the change. This process goes on and the outer shape of the Earth approaches an ellipsoid, but the deformation in the liquid core grows until a certain limit is exceeded and the main axes of the inertia ellipsoid shift and spin axis follows one of them. This endless cycle will last as long as the Earth spins.

When did the last tilt take place? The Russians found in Siberia a suffocated, frozen mammoth with a flowering plant in its mouth. The mammoth had been grazing in summertime, suffocated but not decayed! How is that possible? According to my theory it had been suddenly lifted up to an altitude of 4000 m. I suppose this happened, when the last shift took place. Most part of Europe and Asia and Patagonia were then lifted to the altitude of more than 5000 m. It means that there was Ice Age.

The shift of the Earth's spin axis means a huge catastrophe for the fauna and flora, which could also explain mankind's collective memory about the deluge and a great vortex.

My study also gives a hint for those looking for the ancient Atlantis "swallowed by a flood in one day and one night". The turn of the spin axis caused the northwestern Africa, west of the zero line, to sink in the depths of the sea (fig. 2). Bit by bit it has risen from the sea and has got back into the present dimensions (fig. 13). This area is much larger than Libya and Asia (Asia Minor) put together. It can very well include a large island, now fully covered by sand. Atlantis ought to be searched not below the water but below the sand, in Morocco.

An old Finnish ballad tells, that when we go to the Last Judgment, the stars are dancing on the sky. It really is the dancing stars you can see at the moment, when the Earth's spin axis shifts.


E-mail: heikki.ruohonen@pp.inet.fi

Heikki Ruohonen
Elotie 1 A 10
Fin-20780 Kaarina
FINLAND